Month: November 2015

Links for Assignment 5

Links for Assignment:

  1. Assignment 5:
  1. Social Networking Articles:

  1. Executive summaries:


Executive summaries for Assignment 5

  1. Gigafactory of Tesla in Germany?


If things go as planned, then soon Tesla will be setting up a second gigafactory in Germany, the house of many great automobile companies. This can help Tesla to commercialize the use of electric vehicles which was not given a serious thought by big automobile companies until Tesla showed the intent. For such widespread use to EV, such Gigafactories have to be set up across many countries. This is a great step in a right direction which can save the environment from getting more polluted. This can also inspire the giant automobile industries to bring out EV. Their brand name can drive this new sector to a new level and also contribute to save the environment to reduce the emission of harmful gases in terms of vehicles exhausts and save the fossil fuels for a longer time.


  1. Panasonic aims to make India a global manufacturing hub

The target set by Panasonic is indeed very high which is $4.9 billion by March 2019. To achieve this target, India plays a vital role. If the man power, advanced technologies are harnessed properly then India can be a manufacturing hub exporting the goods to middle Eastern countries and also Africa. This can actually drive a new wave in terms of industries in India. There can be many leading companies which will follow the suit if Panasonic successfully reach their target. Large industries like Toyota, Volvo have their manufacturing units in India. If they too make proper investment to automate their entire firm then they can manufacture more units and earn even more profits.


  1. Toyota to establish $1 billion US based Robotics and R&D company.

This is a good news for the automobile industry. The big players of automobile industries are investing on robotics taking into account the immense future it holds for all manufacturing firms. This can make Toyota to manufacture better cars with zero defect. Also when talented individuals are give proper platform to prosper then surely they can deliver so many innovative things which are helpful for the organization. The plant is planned to come up in a location which is nearby to both MIT and Standford thereby Toyota can tap the best talents and invest on them for R&D in robotics which will surely be helpful for Toyota.

Assignment 5



  1. Explain QFD.

QFD is a specialized method for making customers part of the product development cycle. The purpose of QFD is to identify customer needs and ensure that they are effectively accommodated in a product design. It is a system that allows designers and planners to focus on the attributes of a product from the perspective of customers. It involves

Identifying customer needs also known as voice of customers.

Identify the product attributes that will most satisfy the VOC.

Establishing product development and testing targets and principles.


  1. Explain the WHATs in a QFD matrix.

This WHAT is basically is a kind of question asked by the strategic management people to their own company. It basically asks a question, what does the product need in addition to the current features that make the product better and attract the customers. It also asks what features the customers dislike in the product that the organization manufactures.

Tree diagram


  1. Explain the HOWs in a QFD matrix

This process in QFD simply asks the strategic management team to incorporate the changes that have been suggested by the customers into the components that is being manufactured by the company. This can be shown in the below example where a camera features are being examined to be enhanced.


  1. Explain the 1, or 3, or 9 interrelationship values in a QFD matrix.

The interrelationship digraph is used to bring logic to the process of identifying relationships among various ideas recorded on the affinity diagram. To develop interrelationship digraph,

Write the problem statement and designate it as a problem statement.

Place the problem card on the upper left hand corner of the table. Then take out all the cards and lay them on a table in an order where a card closely related to the problem is closest on the left side of the problem statement. Later discuss about the positions of the cards.

When the cards are all laid out in their relative positions, recreated them on paper showing each card as a small rectangle. Distribute copies of the paper version to all participants for the final revisions.

Distribute the final version to all participants and ask them to draw casual arrows showing what contributes to what. This is the step in which relationships between and among causes are established.



  1. Explain how you calculate the technical priorities in the design target matrix.

The main function of the interrelationship matrix is to establish a connection between the customer’s product requirements and the performance measures designed to improve the product.

The first step in constructing this matrix involves obtaining the opinions of the consumers as far as what they need and require from a specific product. These views are drawn from the planning matrix and placed on the left side of the interrelationship matrix.

With this customer overview, the company can begin to formulate a strategy to improve their product. In doing this, the strengths and weaknesses of the company are weighted against the customer priorities to determine what aspects need to be changed to surpass the competition, what aspects need to change to equal the competition, and what aspects will be left unchanged. The optimal combination is desired.

Knowing what improvements need to be made allows the list of performance measures to be generated and displayed across the top of the interrelationship matrix. By definition, a performance measure is a technical measure evaluating the product’s performance of a demanded quality. In other words, the company must take the voice of the customer and translate it into engineering terms. The matrix will have at least one performance measure for each demanded quality. After setting up the basic matrix, it is necessary to assign relationships between the customer requirements and the performance measures. These relationships are portrayed by symbols indicating a strong relationship, a medium relationship, or a weak relationship. The symbols in turn are assigned respective

indexes such as 9-3-1, 4-2-1, or 5-3-1. When no relationship is evident between a pair a zero value is always assigned. The interrelationship matrix should follow the Pareto Principle keeping in mind that designing to the critical 20% will satisfy 80% of the customer desires. Therefore, there should not be a significant number of strong relationships between pairs.



  1. Define statistical process control.

Statistical process control is a method of quality control which uses statistical methods. SPC is applied in order to monitor and control a process. Monitoring and controlling the process ensures that it operates at its full potential.

SPC does not eliminate all variation in the processes but it does something that is absolutely essential if the process is to be consistent and if the process is to be improved. After the special cause is identified and eliminated, leaving only natural variation, the process is said to be in Statistical Process Control.


  1. Explain control charts for variables, with a simple mathematical example.

Since statistical control for continuous data depends on both the mean and the variability, variables control charts are constructed to monitor each.  The most commonly used chart to monitor the mean is called the   chart.  There are two commonly used charts used to monitor the variability:  the R chart and the s chart.

Procedure for using variables control charts:

Determine the variable to monitor.

At predetermined, even intervals, take samples of size n (usually n=4 or 5).

Compute    and R (or s) for each sample, and plot them on their respective control charts.

After collecting a sufficient number of samples, k (k>20), compute the control limits for the charts.

If any points fall outside of the control limits, conclude that the process is out of control, and begin a search for an assignable or special cause.  When the special cause is identified, remove that point and return to step 4 to re-evaluate the remaining points.

If all the points are within limits, conclude that the process is in control, and use the calculated limits for future monitoring of the process.

Consider the following example:

A large hotel in a resort area has a housekeeping staff that cleans and prepares all of the hotel’s guestrooms daily.  In an effort to improve service through reducing variation in the time required to clean and prepare a room, a series of measurements is taken of the times to service rooms in one section of the hotel.  Cleaning times for five rooms selected each day for 25 consecutive days appear below:


Day Room 1 Room 2 Room 3 Room 4 Room 5 Average Range St. Dev
1 15.6 14.3 17.7 14.3 15.0 15.4 3.4 1.41
2 15.0 14.8 16.8 16.9 17.4 16.2 2.6 1.19
3 16.4 15.1 15.7 17.3 16.6 16.2 2.2 0.85
4 14.2 14.8 17.3 15.0 16.4 15.5 3.1 1.27
5 16.4 16.3 17.6 17.9 14.9 16.6 3.0 1.19
6 14.9 17.2 17.2 15.3 14.1 15.7 3.1 1.40
7 17.9 17.9 14.7 17.0 14.5 16.4 3.4 1.69
8 14.0 17.7 16.9 14.0 14.9 15.5 3.7 1.71
9 17.6 16.5 15.3 14.5 15.1 15.8 3.1 1.24
10 14.6 14.0 14.7 16.9 14.2 14.9 2.9 1.16
11 14.6 15.5 15.9 14.8 14.2 15.0 1.7 0.69
12 15.3 15.3 15.9 15.0 17.8 15.9 2.8 1.13
13 17.4 14.9 17.7 16.6 14.7 16.3 3.0 1.39
14 15.3 16.9 17.9 17.2 17.5 17.0 2.6 1.00
15 14.8 15.1 16.6 16.3 14.5 15.5 2.1 0.93
16 16.1 14.6 17.5 16.9 17.7 16.6 3.1 1.26
17 14.2 14.7 15.3 15.7 14.3 14.8 1.5 0.65
18 14.6 17.2 16.0 16.7 16.3 16.2 2.6 0.98
19 15.9 16.5 16.1 15.0 17.8 16.3 2.8 1.02
20 16.2 14.8 14.8 15.0 15.3 15.2 1.4 0.58
21 16.3 15.3 14.0 17.4 14.5 15.5 3.4 1.37
22 15.0 17.6 14.5 17.5 17.8 16.5 3.3 1.59
23 16.4 15.9 16.7 15.7 16.9 16.3 1.2 0.51
24 16.6 15.1 14.1 17.4 17.8 16.2 3.7 1.56
25 17.0 17.5 17.4 16.2 17.9 17.2 1.7 0.64
            15.94 2.70 1.14



R and X charts

X chart


  1. Explain control charts for attributes, with a simple mathematical example.

Consider the problem associated with the Printed circuit board which has the problem of clustering which is very complex to eliminate using other methods apart from using the control chars for attributes. The data is given below.

The overall mean for number of solder defects = 4.52.

CC calculation

CC data

CC graph


  1. Discuss and explain various continual quality improvement methods and tools.

The various quality improvement methods and tools used are:

Flowchart: A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process. Each step in the process is represented by a different symbol and contains a short description of the process step. The flow chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction. The most commonly used flowcharting method is to have the team, which is made up of the people who work within the process and those who provide input to or take output form the process, develop the chart. It is important to note that to be effective, the completed flowchart must accurately reflect the way the process actually works, not how it should work.

Histograms: Histograms are used to chart frequency of occurrence. Any discussions of histograms must begin with understanding of two kinds of data commonly associated with processes: attributes and variables data. An attribute is something that the output product of the process either has or does not have. Variables data are something that results from measurement. This tool is nothing more than a measurement scale across one axis and frequency of like measurements on the other. The trap occurs when measurements are taken over a long period of time. Too many things can affect processes over time and histogram does not make any provision for these factors. It can be considered as a snapshot of process performance.

Pareto charts: A Pareto chart, also called a Pareto distribution diagram, is a vertical bar graph in which values are plotted in decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right. Pareto charts are extremely useful for analyzing what problems need attention first because the taller bars on the chart, which represent frequency, clearly illustrate which variables have the greatest cumulative effect on a given system.

The Pareto chart provides a graphic depiction of the Pareto principle, a theory maintaining that 80% of the output in a given situation or system is produced by 20% of the input.

Fishbone diagrams: The Ishikawa diagram is commonly called Fishbone diagram. This is only tool out of the 7 tools which is not based on statistics. This chart is simply a means of visualizing how the various factors associated with a process affect the process’s output. The same data could be tabulated in a list, but the human mind would have a much more difficult time trying to associate the factors with each other and with the total outcome of the process under investigation. The fishbone diagram provides a graphic view of the entire process that is easily interpreted by the brain.

Control Charts: The control chart is a graph used to study how a process changes over time. Data are plotted in time order. A control chart always has a central line for the average, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. These lines are determined from historical data. These are the most appropriate tool to monitor processes. The properly used control chart will immediately alert the user to any change in the process. The appropriate response to that alert is to stop process at once, preventing the production of defective parts.


  1. Explain the way control charts could be used for quality improvements.

Control charts are fundamental tools for continual improvement. They provide alerts when special causes are at work in the process and they prompt investigation and correction. When the initial special causes have been removed and the data stay between control limits, work can begin on process improvement. As process improvements are implemented, the control charts will either ratify the improvement or reveal that the anticipated results were not achieved.

As the process is refined and improved, it will be necessary to update the chart parameters. The UCL, LCL and process average will all shift. Once the control charts are established and the process is in statistical control, the charting does not stop. Data will have to be continually collected from the process in the same way they were earlier for the initial chart.

Gigafactory of Tesla in Germany?

If things go as planned, then soon Tesla will be setting up a second gigafactory in Germany, the house of many great automobile companies. This can help Tesla to commercialize the use of electric vehicles which was not given a  serious thought by big automobile companies until Tesla showed the intent. For such widespread use to EV, such Gigafactories have to be set up across many countries. This is a great step in a right direction which can save the environment from getting more polluted.

Panasonic aims to make India a global manufacturing hub

The target set by Panasonic is indeed very high which is $4.9 billion by March 2019. To achieve this target, India plays a vital role. If the man power, advanced technologies are harnessed properly then India can be a manufacturing hub exporting the goods to middle Eastern countries and also Africa.

India perhaps has good man power coupled with good brain and young working population can actually make this a reality and help Panasonic to reach the target.

Toyota to establish $1 billion US based Robotics and R&D company

This is a good news for the automobile industry. The big players of automobile industries are investing on robotics taking into account the immense future it holds for all manufacturing firms. This can make Toyota to manufacture better cars with zero defect.

When big companies invest in R&D then it can surely augur well for the organization and on a whole to the entire automobile industry. This is because being industry leaders they can bring in new innovations in their products without the fear of failure as the brand name is sufficient to make any product from their company a success.

Links for Midterm exam and executive summaries

  1. Midterm exam:                      
  2. Social Networking: All-Electric Porsche Concept Includes Heads-Up Holograms :
  3. Social Networking: Solar Road in the Netherlands:
  4. Social Networking: Tesla Makes First Acquisition:
  5. Executive summaries for social networking articles:

Executive summaries for social networking articles for midterm exam

  1. All-Electric Porsche Concept Includes Heads-Up Holograms:                                      This electric Porsche has a driving range of 500km for a single charge which is such a good thing. When electric cars are being manufactured by top automobile companies, the customers believe that the electric cars can match up with the cars that are run on conventional fuels in terms of power, style and design. Also these cars are incorporated with high end technology like the holographic display, a camera in the dashboard is used for eye tracking which shows the technical advancement in the electric cars. This can pull in more customers to buy electric cars from various manufacturers. This will have a positive effect on the conservation of non renewable fuels and also zero emission from such cars will have a positive effect on the environment which benefits the living beings on a whole.
  1. Solar Road in the Netherlands:                                                                                      This is such a great initiative by the consortium which was behind this pilot project of Solar road which involved using solar panels inducted into the road to tap the solar energy and convert it into electrical energy and use this for lighting the street lights and other lights along the road. If this is a success then it can benefit the mankind. There are many countries which are still banking on thermal power plant to provide electricity to many houses in their country. If this eco friendly way of producing power is a success then one can imagine the amount of electricity that can be generated in a single town. This technology can greatly benefit countries which receive intense sunlight throughout the year.
  1. Tesla Makes First Acquisition:                                                                                     Tesla was the first company which successfully launched an electric racing car and then subsequently launched a sedan class car also. These cars were really expensive for a common man to buy. The aim of Tesla is to manufacture cars which are affordable to a common man. This acquisition makes their aim all more realistic. This can significantly reduce the cost that they have to put in to get the plastic parts for the cars. Also this shows that the company is in good health in terms of cash flow. Also this acquisition shows that the company is making every effort to make their aim a reality. This can again be helpful to save the non renewable fuel and also environment friendly.

Midterm Exam TQM Fall 2015

Case 1:


Human Error Detection:  The water source is a lake. The froth seen on the sides of the bridge is due to the untreated industrial waster that is entering the lake and polluting the entire water source. This froth is formed due to those chemicals which have polluted the water and there are chances that it affects not only the movement of traffic, when the human beings come in contact with the froth it may lead to some skin infections or something more serious than that. The other thing it causes is very slow moving traffic. The vehicles have to make way through the chemically active froth which is really hard.

Prevention: The industries must treat the waste they are releasing into water sources. This is very important to prevent the water source being contaminated. Also the other thing is that the concerned authorities must have drives to clean the fresh water sources on a regular basis to prevent the contamination. This also ensures there are no infections transferred to human beings too. Once the froth is cleared, traffic movement will be very smooth.

Case 2:

Manhole pic

Detection: A man hole right in the middle of the road is not a good thing. If there is a problem with the manhole, then the road has to be blocked to either repair the manhole or to clear the clogging the manhole which can affect the traffic severely.

Prevention: The man hole should always be placed on the sides of the road or on the parking lane so that if there is any manhole related problem, then the traffic need not be blocked. The manhole related problem can be solved easily without affecting the traffic.

Case 3:


Detection: This scene can be seen at any construction site. The huge pile of sand, huge machinery with loud noise causes a lot of sound pollution and also produces a lot of dust which can affect the people suffering from dust allergy and even normal people which can lead to breathing problem for certain people.

Prevention: The construction work has to be carried out in a methodical manner. The piles of sand, stone and other things which produce dust should be covered using a temporary covering like a tent just to prevent dust being let into the air. Also in terms of sound pollution, advanced techniques and machinery should be used which produces less noise reduces the noise pollution considerably.

Case 4:

Midterm TQM 2

Detection: In the picture you see a man who is coloring the berries which are green to red to show it as a ripe berry. This is really wrong ethically and also the color used is harmful for human health. A person who buys this surely falls sick due to consumption of this berry.

Prevention: This man is not ethical in his business. From the health point of view, the consumer has to be really careful while choosing the berries. A properly ripe berry will always be soft but here the yet to ripe berry will be really hard. The consumer should be careful enough to check the hardness of the berry to choose the right fruit. The better option is the customers should file a case against him and stop buying anything from this person.

Case 5:


Detection: This picture shows how dangerous this road is and how attentive the driver of the vehicle must be along with possessing excellent driving skills. My point here is that there are no parapet walls along the side of the road where a slightest of slip leads to the vehicle falling off the mountains. This is seriously a risky road to drive and can prove fatal.

Prevention: To prevent some major loss of lives, the authorities should build a parapet wall along the side of the road just to make sure the vehicles need not necessarily fall of the road. This can prevent many lives being lost and also the driver can be assured of a back up safety when the vehicle goes off road.

Case 6:


Detection: When you watch this war memorial, one can clearly see the water flowing all the time. Also the metallic remains of the aircraft are left uncovered and out in the nature. Slowly over a period of time these metals corrode and the entire structure breaks down.

Prevention: To prevent the metal being corroded, it can be covered. The war memorial has a lot of space. So, a transparent covering can prevent the metal from being corroded or it can be painted a thick coat of oil paint to prevent corrosion. The painting process has to be done regularly maybe once in 2 to 3 years to maintain the metal for a very long period of time.

Case 7:


Detection: One can clearly observe that the people enjoying the coracle ride have no life saving jackets with them. This is a serious safety concern.

Prevention: The life saving jacket is such a good safety device that it saves hundreds of lives each year. A life jacket should be a must when entering a water source on a coracle, boat, steamer or any other means of water transport. Irrespective of people knowing how to swim, a life saving jacket should be made mandatory.

Case 8:


Detection:  If the picture is observed clearly, there is a person wearing yellow shirt who rides the motorcycle rashly and without wearing a helmet.

Prevention: The person should use common sense. One should not ride a motorcycle rashly on a normal road since it may result in accident and also confuse the other people using vehicle. Also one must wear a helmet while riding a motorcycle. Usually the head is the most sensitive part and often ends up with major injuries when met with an accident. If a person uses helmet, it can reduce the intensity of the injury and prevent the loss of life of a person.

Case 9:


Detection:  In the above picture, a worker is welding a metal component in an industry. Also one can observe there are people nearby this department doing there work without using any protection.

Prevention: Welding affects the vision of a person. The people in background are far from the welding section but still there will be people who will be passing by the welding section without any protective gear for their eyes. The best possible way to prevent this is to shift welding section into a closed enclosure and the entry should be restricted to people having protective eye gear.

Case 10:


Detection:                                                                                                                           This is a photo taken at a junk shop where the people here collect the e-waste and break the e-waste into smaller fragments which can be recycled in e-waste processing units. The workers here do not use any safety devices such as gloves or any protective gear while working.

Prevention:                                                                                                                           The e-waste contains many toxic elements in it. In this photo one can clearly see there are many CRT monitors and many such electronic wastes which are collected. While breaking them down into smaller fragments, people working here should use safety measures such as using gloves and gas masks as dealing with CRT monitors which has glass and also the CRT tube which is harmful for human beings. So atleast the people working there should use gloves and gas masks when processing such e-wastes. Apart from that they have to be taught about the hazards they face and the ways to protect themselves from not exposing to those hazards.

Case 11:

Midterm TQM 3


The photo clearly shows that the pavement and road junction is broken. The cement pieces are quite big. Also a part of the pavement also has huge cracks on it. The people while getting down after the car is parked or people who are walking on the pavement can easily get hurt.

Prevention:                                                                                                                          The most simple way to prevent the people from getting injured is to have a proper coating of concrete towards the road and make sure the finishing is professionally done. This happens over a period of time. The best way to prevent this is to inspect the pavements regularly and once the cracks are spotted, the concrete is applied to prevent the cracks from deepening.

Case 12:


Detection:                                                                                                                           This photo was taken when there was incessant rain for about 15 days. This huge crater like thing was formed on the middle of the road but good thing was that the authorities blocked the road.

Prevention:                                                                                                                         This happens primarily due to improper tarring of the road. There are no outlets for the water collected during rain to reach the underwater table or to a rain water drain. This is unscientific designing of road leads to such huge crater like structures formed when water is logged continuously for over a week’s time. The mud beneath the tar softens up and gives way for water to reach the underground water table.

Solar Road in the Netherlands

This is a really good initiative taken up by the Netherlands government to incorporate solar cells which traps the solar energy and then converts it into electricity to provide power for houses. If this pilot project is a success, then it will revolutionize the way electricity in generated. Now a days, there are still power generated from thermal power plants which consumes tons of coal every single day. If solar energy can successfully be converted into electricity then I am sure each country can save lot of natural resources and also save lot of money by not opting to buy the electricity from private producers. The countries where there is a constant availability of solar power all through the year will benefit the most.