US Study Reveals the Best Plants For Green Roofs

https://sourceable.net/us-study-reveals-the-best-plants-for-green-roofs/#

This is an incredible way to increase the green covers in the urban jungles. It provides a way to cool the building from the top, also acts as good green space which provides fresh air to people when they venture out in the terrace of the building and there are some vegetables which can be grown at the terrace garden, organic manure can be used to grow them which gives more nutritive value than the vegetables grown using the chemical fertilizers.

Disaster relief humanoids unveiled at Japan’s robot exhibition

 

http://www.msn.com/en-in/money/technology/disaster-relief-humanoids-unveiled-at-japans-robot-exhibition/ar-AAfYJTk

This invention can help many people during natural disaster. This will be such a good invention if everything falls in place. The kind of harsh environment that prevails during a natural disaster makes it very tough for human beings to help each other. If this robot can take up big tasks then it can go a long way to help the entire mankind.

Links for Assignment 5

Links for Assignment:

  1. Assignment 5: https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/23/assignment-5/
  1. Social Networking Articles:

https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/22/gigafactory-of-tesla-in-germany/

https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/22/panasonic-aims-to-make-india-a-global-manufacturing-hub/

https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/22/toyota-to-establish-1-billion-us-based-robotics-and-rd-company/

  1. Executive summaries:

https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/23/executive-summaries-for-assignment-5/

Executive summaries for Assignment 5

  1. Gigafactory of Tesla in Germany?

 

If things go as planned, then soon Tesla will be setting up a second gigafactory in Germany, the house of many great automobile companies. This can help Tesla to commercialize the use of electric vehicles which was not given a serious thought by big automobile companies until Tesla showed the intent. For such widespread use to EV, such Gigafactories have to be set up across many countries. This is a great step in a right direction which can save the environment from getting more polluted. This can also inspire the giant automobile industries to bring out EV. Their brand name can drive this new sector to a new level and also contribute to save the environment to reduce the emission of harmful gases in terms of vehicles exhausts and save the fossil fuels for a longer time.

 

  1. Panasonic aims to make India a global manufacturing hub

The target set by Panasonic is indeed very high which is $4.9 billion by March 2019. To achieve this target, India plays a vital role. If the man power, advanced technologies are harnessed properly then India can be a manufacturing hub exporting the goods to middle Eastern countries and also Africa. This can actually drive a new wave in terms of industries in India. There can be many leading companies which will follow the suit if Panasonic successfully reach their target. Large industries like Toyota, Volvo have their manufacturing units in India. If they too make proper investment to automate their entire firm then they can manufacture more units and earn even more profits.

 

  1. Toyota to establish $1 billion US based Robotics and R&D company.

This is a good news for the automobile industry. The big players of automobile industries are investing on robotics taking into account the immense future it holds for all manufacturing firms. This can make Toyota to manufacture better cars with zero defect. Also when talented individuals are give proper platform to prosper then surely they can deliver so many innovative things which are helpful for the organization. The plant is planned to come up in a location which is nearby to both MIT and Standford thereby Toyota can tap the best talents and invest on them for R&D in robotics which will surely be helpful for Toyota.

Assignment 5

ASSIGNMENT 5

 

  1. Explain QFD.

QFD is a specialized method for making customers part of the product development cycle. The purpose of QFD is to identify customer needs and ensure that they are effectively accommodated in a product design. It is a system that allows designers and planners to focus on the attributes of a product from the perspective of customers. It involves

Identifying customer needs also known as voice of customers.

Identify the product attributes that will most satisfy the VOC.

Establishing product development and testing targets and principles.

 

  1. Explain the WHATs in a QFD matrix.

This WHAT is basically is a kind of question asked by the strategic management people to their own company. It basically asks a question, what does the product need in addition to the current features that make the product better and attract the customers. It also asks what features the customers dislike in the product that the organization manufactures.

Tree diagram

 

  1. Explain the HOWs in a QFD matrix

This process in QFD simply asks the strategic management team to incorporate the changes that have been suggested by the customers into the components that is being manufactured by the company. This can be shown in the below example where a camera features are being examined to be enhanced.

7-20

  1. Explain the 1, or 3, or 9 interrelationship values in a QFD matrix.

The interrelationship digraph is used to bring logic to the process of identifying relationships among various ideas recorded on the affinity diagram. To develop interrelationship digraph,

Write the problem statement and designate it as a problem statement.

Place the problem card on the upper left hand corner of the table. Then take out all the cards and lay them on a table in an order where a card closely related to the problem is closest on the left side of the problem statement. Later discuss about the positions of the cards.

When the cards are all laid out in their relative positions, recreated them on paper showing each card as a small rectangle. Distribute copies of the paper version to all participants for the final revisions.

Distribute the final version to all participants and ask them to draw casual arrows showing what contributes to what. This is the step in which relationships between and among causes are established.

105393

 

  1. Explain how you calculate the technical priorities in the design target matrix.

The main function of the interrelationship matrix is to establish a connection between the customer’s product requirements and the performance measures designed to improve the product.

The first step in constructing this matrix involves obtaining the opinions of the consumers as far as what they need and require from a specific product. These views are drawn from the planning matrix and placed on the left side of the interrelationship matrix.

With this customer overview, the company can begin to formulate a strategy to improve their product. In doing this, the strengths and weaknesses of the company are weighted against the customer priorities to determine what aspects need to be changed to surpass the competition, what aspects need to change to equal the competition, and what aspects will be left unchanged. The optimal combination is desired.

Knowing what improvements need to be made allows the list of performance measures to be generated and displayed across the top of the interrelationship matrix. By definition, a performance measure is a technical measure evaluating the product’s performance of a demanded quality. In other words, the company must take the voice of the customer and translate it into engineering terms. The matrix will have at least one performance measure for each demanded quality. After setting up the basic matrix, it is necessary to assign relationships between the customer requirements and the performance measures. These relationships are portrayed by symbols indicating a strong relationship, a medium relationship, or a weak relationship. The symbols in turn are assigned respective

indexes such as 9-3-1, 4-2-1, or 5-3-1. When no relationship is evident between a pair a zero value is always assigned. The interrelationship matrix should follow the Pareto Principle keeping in mind that designing to the critical 20% will satisfy 80% of the customer desires. Therefore, there should not be a significant number of strong relationships between pairs.

 

Relationships

  1. Define statistical process control.

Statistical process control is a method of quality control which uses statistical methods. SPC is applied in order to monitor and control a process. Monitoring and controlling the process ensures that it operates at its full potential.

SPC does not eliminate all variation in the processes but it does something that is absolutely essential if the process is to be consistent and if the process is to be improved. After the special cause is identified and eliminated, leaving only natural variation, the process is said to be in Statistical Process Control.

 

  1. Explain control charts for variables, with a simple mathematical example.

Since statistical control for continuous data depends on both the mean and the variability, variables control charts are constructed to monitor each.  The most commonly used chart to monitor the mean is called the   chart.  There are two commonly used charts used to monitor the variability:  the R chart and the s chart.

Procedure for using variables control charts:

Determine the variable to monitor.

At predetermined, even intervals, take samples of size n (usually n=4 or 5).

Compute    and R (or s) for each sample, and plot them on their respective control charts.

After collecting a sufficient number of samples, k (k>20), compute the control limits for the charts.

If any points fall outside of the control limits, conclude that the process is out of control, and begin a search for an assignable or special cause.  When the special cause is identified, remove that point and return to step 4 to re-evaluate the remaining points.

If all the points are within limits, conclude that the process is in control, and use the calculated limits for future monitoring of the process.

Consider the following example:

A large hotel in a resort area has a housekeeping staff that cleans and prepares all of the hotel’s guestrooms daily.  In an effort to improve service through reducing variation in the time required to clean and prepare a room, a series of measurements is taken of the times to service rooms in one section of the hotel.  Cleaning times for five rooms selected each day for 25 consecutive days appear below:

 

Day Room 1 Room 2 Room 3 Room 4 Room 5 Average Range St. Dev
1 15.6 14.3 17.7 14.3 15.0 15.4 3.4 1.41
2 15.0 14.8 16.8 16.9 17.4 16.2 2.6 1.19
3 16.4 15.1 15.7 17.3 16.6 16.2 2.2 0.85
4 14.2 14.8 17.3 15.0 16.4 15.5 3.1 1.27
5 16.4 16.3 17.6 17.9 14.9 16.6 3.0 1.19
6 14.9 17.2 17.2 15.3 14.1 15.7 3.1 1.40
7 17.9 17.9 14.7 17.0 14.5 16.4 3.4 1.69
8 14.0 17.7 16.9 14.0 14.9 15.5 3.7 1.71
9 17.6 16.5 15.3 14.5 15.1 15.8 3.1 1.24
10 14.6 14.0 14.7 16.9 14.2 14.9 2.9 1.16
11 14.6 15.5 15.9 14.8 14.2 15.0 1.7 0.69
12 15.3 15.3 15.9 15.0 17.8 15.9 2.8 1.13
13 17.4 14.9 17.7 16.6 14.7 16.3 3.0 1.39
14 15.3 16.9 17.9 17.2 17.5 17.0 2.6 1.00
15 14.8 15.1 16.6 16.3 14.5 15.5 2.1 0.93
16 16.1 14.6 17.5 16.9 17.7 16.6 3.1 1.26
17 14.2 14.7 15.3 15.7 14.3 14.8 1.5 0.65
18 14.6 17.2 16.0 16.7 16.3 16.2 2.6 0.98
19 15.9 16.5 16.1 15.0 17.8 16.3 2.8 1.02
20 16.2 14.8 14.8 15.0 15.3 15.2 1.4 0.58
21 16.3 15.3 14.0 17.4 14.5 15.5 3.4 1.37
22 15.0 17.6 14.5 17.5 17.8 16.5 3.3 1.59
23 16.4 15.9 16.7 15.7 16.9 16.3 1.2 0.51
24 16.6 15.1 14.1 17.4 17.8 16.2 3.7 1.56
25 17.0 17.5 17.4 16.2 17.9 17.2 1.7 0.64
                 
           
            15.94 2.70 1.14

 

 

R and X charts

X chart

 

  1. Explain control charts for attributes, with a simple mathematical example.

Consider the problem associated with the Printed circuit board which has the problem of clustering which is very complex to eliminate using other methods apart from using the control chars for attributes. The data is given below.

The overall mean for number of solder defects = 4.52.

CC calculation

CC data

CC graph

 

  1. Discuss and explain various continual quality improvement methods and tools.

The various quality improvement methods and tools used are:

Flowchart: A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process. Each step in the process is represented by a different symbol and contains a short description of the process step. The flow chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction. The most commonly used flowcharting method is to have the team, which is made up of the people who work within the process and those who provide input to or take output form the process, develop the chart. It is important to note that to be effective, the completed flowchart must accurately reflect the way the process actually works, not how it should work.

Histograms: Histograms are used to chart frequency of occurrence. Any discussions of histograms must begin with understanding of two kinds of data commonly associated with processes: attributes and variables data. An attribute is something that the output product of the process either has or does not have. Variables data are something that results from measurement. This tool is nothing more than a measurement scale across one axis and frequency of like measurements on the other. The trap occurs when measurements are taken over a long period of time. Too many things can affect processes over time and histogram does not make any provision for these factors. It can be considered as a snapshot of process performance.

Pareto charts: A Pareto chart, also called a Pareto distribution diagram, is a vertical bar graph in which values are plotted in decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right. Pareto charts are extremely useful for analyzing what problems need attention first because the taller bars on the chart, which represent frequency, clearly illustrate which variables have the greatest cumulative effect on a given system.

The Pareto chart provides a graphic depiction of the Pareto principle, a theory maintaining that 80% of the output in a given situation or system is produced by 20% of the input.

Fishbone diagrams: The Ishikawa diagram is commonly called Fishbone diagram. This is only tool out of the 7 tools which is not based on statistics. This chart is simply a means of visualizing how the various factors associated with a process affect the process’s output. The same data could be tabulated in a list, but the human mind would have a much more difficult time trying to associate the factors with each other and with the total outcome of the process under investigation. The fishbone diagram provides a graphic view of the entire process that is easily interpreted by the brain.

Control Charts: The control chart is a graph used to study how a process changes over time. Data are plotted in time order. A control chart always has a central line for the average, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. These lines are determined from historical data. These are the most appropriate tool to monitor processes. The properly used control chart will immediately alert the user to any change in the process. The appropriate response to that alert is to stop process at once, preventing the production of defective parts.

 

  1. Explain the way control charts could be used for quality improvements.

Control charts are fundamental tools for continual improvement. They provide alerts when special causes are at work in the process and they prompt investigation and correction. When the initial special causes have been removed and the data stay between control limits, work can begin on process improvement. As process improvements are implemented, the control charts will either ratify the improvement or reveal that the anticipated results were not achieved.

As the process is refined and improved, it will be necessary to update the chart parameters. The UCL, LCL and process average will all shift. Once the control charts are established and the process is in statistical control, the charting does not stop. Data will have to be continually collected from the process in the same way they were earlier for the initial chart.

Gigafactory of Tesla in Germany?

http://cleantechnica.com/2015/11/19/german-tesla-gigafactory-reportedly-being-discussed/

If things go as planned, then soon Tesla will be setting up a second gigafactory in Germany, the house of many great automobile companies. This can help Tesla to commercialize the use of electric vehicles which was not given a  serious thought by big automobile companies until Tesla showed the intent. For such widespread use to EV, such Gigafactories have to be set up across many countries. This is a great step in a right direction which can save the environment from getting more polluted.

Panasonic aims to make India a global manufacturing hub

http://www.themanufacturer.com/articles/panasonic-aims-to-make-india-a-global-manufacturing-hub

The target set by Panasonic is indeed very high which is $4.9 billion by March 2019. To achieve this target, India plays a vital role. If the man power, advanced technologies are harnessed properly then India can be a manufacturing hub exporting the goods to middle Eastern countries and also Africa.

India perhaps has good man power coupled with good brain and young working population can actually make this a reality and help Panasonic to reach the target.

Toyota to establish $1 billion US based Robotics and R&D company

http://www.themanufacturer.com/articles/toyota-to-establish-1bn-us-based-robotics-and-ai-rd-company/

This is a good news for the automobile industry. The big players of automobile industries are investing on robotics taking into account the immense future it holds for all manufacturing firms. This can make Toyota to manufacture better cars with zero defect.

When big companies invest in R&D then it can surely augur well for the organization and on a whole to the entire automobile industry. This is because being industry leaders they can bring in new innovations in their products without the fear of failure as the brand name is sufficient to make any product from their company a success.

Links for Midterm exam and executive summaries

  1. Midterm exam:                                https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/14/midterm-exam-tqm-fall-2015/
  2. Social Networking: All-Electric Porsche Concept Includes Heads-Up Holograms :  https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/13/all-electric-porsche-concept-includes-heads-up-holograms/
  3. Social Networking: Solar Road in the Netherlands:  https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/13/solar-road-in-the-netherlands/
  4. Social Networking: Tesla Makes First Acquisition:  https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/13/tesla-makes-first-acquisition/
  5. Executive summaries for social networking articles:  https://prashanthmuralidhar.wordpress.com/2015/11/15/executive-summaries-for-social-networking-articles-for-midterm-exam/